Mar 20, 2017Spectral Characterization

The measured wavelength locations of the ETM+ spectral bands are compared to Landat 5’s TM in Table 8.1 The spectral bandwidths are determined by the combined response of all optical path mirrors (i.e. primary, secondary, scan line corrector, scanning), the spectral filters, and the individual detectors. The spectral filters, located immediately in front of each […]

Aug 1, 2016Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook

The Landsat 7 Data Users Handbook is a living document prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat Project Science Office at the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, SD, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Landsat Project Science Office at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, […]

Sample RSR plot
Mar 11, 2016Spectral Response of the Multispectral Scanner System
In-Band, Band-Average Relative Spectral Response

< The Multispectral Scanner System   The band-average relative spectral radiance responses of the Landsat-1 through -5 Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) instruments are provided below as extracted from the best reproductions of the original data available. The original measurement data has been lost to history and the only remaining source of the relative spectral responses […]

May 17, 2013Thermal Infrared Sensor

The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) measures land surface temperature in two thermal bands with a new technology that applies quantum physics to detect heat. TIRS was added to Landsat 8 when it became clear that state water resource managers rely on the highly accurate measurements of Earth’s thermal energy obtained by Landsat 5 and Landsat […]

May 17, 2013Operational Land Imager

The Operational Land Imager (OLI), built by the Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, measures in the visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared portions of the spectrum. Its images have 15-meter (49 ft.) panchromatic and 30-meter multi-spectral spatial resolutions along a 185 km (115 miles) wide swath, covering wide areas of the Earth’s landscape while […]

Landsat 8
May 17, 2013Landsat 8

The Details Launch Date: February 11, 2013 Status: operational Sensors: OLI, TIRS Altitude: 705 km Inclination: 98.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 10 AM (± 15 min.) local time (descending node) Period of Revolution : 99 minutes; ~14.5 orbits/day Repeat Coverage : 16 days + read about the history of Landsat 8 More Technical Details Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 Landsat 4 […]

Jan 23, 2013Landsat Applications

  Agriculture, Forestry and Range Resources Land Use and Mapping Geology Hydrology Coastal Resources Environmental Monitoring Discriminating vegetative, crop and timber types Classifying land uses Mapping major geologic features Determining water boundaries and surface water areas Determining patterns and extent of turbidity Monitoring deforestation Measuring crop and timber acreage Cartographic mapping and map updating Revising […]

The Worldwide Reference System
Jan 21, 2013The Worldwide Reference System

The Worldwide Reference System (WRS) is a global notation system for Landsat data. It enables a user to inquire about satellite imagery over any portion of the world by specifying a nominal scene center designated by PATH and ROW numbers. The WRS has proven valuable for the cataloging, referencing, and day-to-day use of imagery transmitted […]

Jan 21, 2013The Thematic Mapper

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is an advanced, multispectral scanning, Earth resources sensor designed to achieve higher image resolution, sharper spectral separation, improved geometric fidelity and greater radiometric accuracy and resolution than the MSS sensor. TM data are sensed in seven spectral bands simultaneously. Band 6 senses thermal (heat) infrared radiation. Landsat can only acquire night […]

Jan 21, 2013The Multispectral Scanner System

MSS Relative Spectral Response >   The Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) sensors were line scanning devices observing the Earth perpendicular to the orbital track. The cross-track scanning was accomplished by an oscillating mirror; six lines were scanned simultaneously in each of the four spectral bands for each mirror sweep. The forward motion of the satellite […]

Jan 21, 2013The Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus

The Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument is a fixed “whisk-broom”, eight-band, multispectral scanning radiometer capable of providing high-resolution imaging information of the Earth’s surface. It detects spectrally-filtered radiation in VNIR, SWIR, LWIR and panchromatic bands from the sun-lit Earth in a 183 km wide swath when orbiting at an altitude of 705 km. The […]

Jan 21, 2013The Enhanced Thematic Mapper

Landsat 6 was launched on Oct. 5, 1993 carrying the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) instrument. L6 did not achieve orbit.   ETM Bands Band Number µm Resolution 1 0.45-0.52 30 m 2 0.52-0.60 30 m 3 0.63-0.69 30 m 4 0.76-0.90 30 m 5 1.55-1.75 30 m 6 10.4-12.5 120 m 7 2.08-2.35 30 m […]

Landsat 7
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 7

The Details Launch Date: April 15, 1999 Status: operational despite Scan Line Corrector (SLC) failure May 31, 2003 Sensors: ETM+ Altitude: 705 km Inclination: 98.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 10 AM (± 15 min.) local time (descending node) Period of Revolution : 99 minutes; ~14.5 orbits/day Repeat Coverage : 16 days + read about the history of Landsat 7 More Technical Details […]

Landsat 6
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 6

The Details Launch Date: October 5, 1993 Status: lost at launch Sensor: ETM + read about the history of Landsat 6 More Technical Details Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 Landsat 4 Landsat 5 Landsat 6 Landsat 7 Landsat 8 The Worldwide Reference System

Landsat 5
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 5

The Details Launch Date: March 1, 1984 Status: Decommissioned January 2013 Sensors: TM, MSS Altitude: 705 km Inclination: 98.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 9:45 AM (± 15 min.) local time (descending node) Period of Revolution : 99 minutes; ~14.5 orbits/day Repeat Coverage : 16 days + read about the history of Landsat 5 More Technical Details Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 […]

Landsat 4
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 4

The Details Launch Date: July 16 , 1982 Status: decommissioned, June 15, 2001 Sensors: TM, MSS Altitude: 705 km Inclination: 98.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 9:45 AM (± 15 min.) local time (descending node) Period of Revolution : 99 minutes; ~14.5 orbits/day Repeat Coverage : 16 days + read about the history of Landsat 4 More Technical Details Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat […]

Landsat 3
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 3

The Details Launch Date: March 5, 1978 Status: put into standby mode: March 31, 1983; decommissioned: Sept. 7, 1983 Sensors: RBV, MSS Altitude: nominally 900 km Inclination: 99.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 9:42 AM mean local time (descending node) Period of Revolution : 103 minutes; ~14 orbits/day Repeat Coverage : 18 days + read about the history of Landsat 3 More Technical […]

Landsat 2
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 2

The Details Launch Date: January 22, 1975 Status: removed from operational status: February 5, 1982; decommissioned: July 27, 1983 Sensors: RBV, MSS Altitude: nominally 900 km Inclination: 99.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 9:42 AM mean local time (descending node) Period of Revolution : 103 minutes; ~14 orbits/day Repeat Coverage : 18 days + read about the history of Landsat 2 More Technical Details […]

Landsat 1
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 1

The Details Launch Date: July 23, 1972 Status: expired, January 6, 1978 Sensors: RBV, MSS Altitude: nominally 900 km Inclination: 99.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous Equatorial Crossing Time: nominally 9:42 AM mean local time (descending node) Period of Revolution : 103 minutes; ~14 orbits/day Repeat Coverage : 18 days + read about the history of Landsat 1 More Technical Details Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 Landsat […]

L7 bands compared to L8 band
Jan 21, 2013Landsat 8

Landsat 1 • Landsat 2 • Landsat 3 • Landsat 4 • Landsat 5 • Landsat 6 • Landsat 7 • Landsat 8   Landsat 8 launched on February 11, 2013, from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on an Atlas-V 401 rocket, with the extended payload fairing
 (EPF) from United Launch Alliance, LLC. The Landsat 8 satellite payload consists of two science instruments—the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the […]